# Guide to Churn Prediction: Part 1 - Gather & Clean

First published on December 16, 2021

Last updated at December 29, 2021

12 minute read

Jahnavi C.

Growth

## TLDR

In this blog we'll implement the first 3 steps on a customer dataset for Churn Prediction.

By now you should be familiar with all the steps required to build a machine learning model. If you didn’t get a chance to go through it, feel free to check out this

blog

, where I explained in detail all the steps required to build and optimize a ML model.

## Outline

• Intro

• Defining the Objective

• Data Gathering

• Data Cleaning

## Intro

A Telecom company recently noticed that many of their

customers churned

unexpectedly. If this continues, the company will incur huge losses. So they immediately worked on a plan to retain their customers.

#### The company came up with two solutions to solve the issue:

1. To

reduce prices

and offer special discounts to

all

their customers in order to retain the customers who might churn. The problem with this solution is that, giving huge discounts to all the customers may cause

losses

or the company may produce very little profit.

2. The company has a huge amount of

past data

about the customers including the

customers who left

, so they thought that analyzing their past data may help them

predict

which customer is likely to churn and if a special offer can retain them. In hopes to reduce additional losses, the company decided to go with the second solution and approached a

data scientist

to help them analyze the data and to predict the customers likely to churn.

So without any further delay, let’s dive into the world of data scientists and see how they approach this problem to predict customer churn.

## Step 1: Define the Objective

#### Understand the business

It’s a telecommunications company that provides

home phone

and

internet

services to residents in the USA.

#### Identify the problem

The company noticed that their customers have been churning for a while. And this has impacted their customer base and business revenue, hence they need a plan to retain their customers.

### Solution

Build a machine learning

model

to identify/

predict the customers

who are likely to

churn

.

As we got a brief idea about what their business is, so let’s start gathering the data.

## Step 2: Data Gathering

What kind of data will be required to predict customer churn?

We require customer data, list of services, plans and cost details etc. We can always check with the client what data they have and can always request the client to provide more data as and when required.

To keep things simple, we'll use an open source dataset

Telco Customer Churn

for this blog

It’s a fictional dataset created by

IBM and is available on

Kaggle.

Download the dataset from the above link and save it for further analysis.

## Step 3: Data Cleaning

Some Data Cleaning techniques are correcting typos in the data, removing special characters, converting from one data type to another, datetime formatting etc.

We can either use

Jupyter notebook

or

Google colab

to clean the data, analyze the data,and to build and optimize a model.

#### Importing necessary libraries for Data Cleaning.

``````1
import pandas as pd # python library to load and clean the dataset``````

#### Loading the dataset

``````1
2
df = pd.read_excel("Customer_Churn.xlsx") # read and load the dataset
pd.set_option('display.max_columns', 50) # this setting displays all columns without any break
``````

Dataset displayed in a tabular form

#### 3.1. Check how many rows and columns(also known as features) are in the dataset

``````1
df.shape # To check no. of rows and no. of columns in the dataset``````

Shape of Dataset

#### 3.2. Look for duplicate features by going through the metadata provided.

First, let’s list out all the columns present in the dataset and then understand each column from the given metadata.

``````1
df.columns # displays the names of the columns in the dataset``````

To display the list of columns

List of all columns in the dataset

Meta info

Meta info

#### 3.3. Identify Numerical and Categorical features in the gathered data and check if formatting is required or not.

``````1
df.dtypes # to check the datatype of all columns ``````

Datatypes of all columns in the dataset

Let’s modify the dataset as per above observations. To do so, first let’s observe few records of the dataset.

``````1
df.head() # displays first five records of the dataset``````

First 5 records of all columns in the dataset

#### Modifications

Modifying the dataset based on observations from previous steps

``````1
2
3
df.drop(columns=['Lat Long'], axis = 1,inplace=True) # Removing 'Lat Long' column as it is duplicate
df['Zip Code'] = df['Zip Code'].astype(str) # Converting 'Zip Code' column to object data type
df['Total Charges'] = pd.to_numeric(df['Total Charges'], errors='coerce') # Converting 'Total Charges' column to numerical i.e. int/float datatype
``````

Now let’s quickly check if the modifications are done.

``````1
print("Total Charges: ",df['Total Charges'].dtype,"\nZip Code: ", df['Zip Code'].dtype)``````

datatype of Total Charges and Zip code changed after modifications

Let’s take a look at the sample of modified dataset

``````1
df.head() # displays first 5 records of the dataset``````

Sample of modified dataset

Columns after modifications

From the above output you can see that

Lat Long

is also removed.

If we are working with a real time dataset, then

at this stage

it is recommended to

save

the

cleaned dataset

in the cloud databases for future usage.

Now this

cleaned data

can be used for

Exploratory Data Analysis

.

## Conclusion

One should always remember that the way we define the objective, the way we gather data and the way we clean/format the data will

vary

depending on the

requirements

and the

data

we have.

That’s it for this blog. Next in this series, we'll see how to perform

Exploratory Data Analysis

(EDA) on the cleaned dataset, so stay tuned!!

Thanks for reading!!